Friday, November 16, 2012

Asian Flavors from an Italian connection

By Phyllis Louise Harris
November/December 2012

The son of Italian immigrants, Jeno Paulucci grew up on the Iron Range in northern Minnesota where life was anything but easy. In his biography How it was to make $100,000,000 in a hurry Jeno  says, “I was the son of an immigrant laborer, living in a five-dollar-a-month…flat filled with cockroaches and mining dust…on the edge of the iron dumps.” It was a difficult life where he began working at an early age unloading boxcars for one dollar per car or for an armload of speckled fruit. He built his own little red wagon out of discarded parts and pulled it along the railroad tracks picking up stray bits of coal to fuel the family’s stove. At the age of ten he started his first business by layering discarded scraps of colorful iron ore in vials and selling them to tourists for a quarter, fifty cents or a dollar: that is until the mining officials decided he was selling stolen scraps.

 In 1933, during the peak of the depression, the family opened a grocery store in the front room of their house in South Hibbing. It was the first home the Paulucci family owned, purchased from the mining company for $125 because it was to be torn down and used for firewood. The business was a success and continued in operation for twenty-two years, long after Jeno had earned fame and fortune.

 In addition to helping in the family business, Jeno got a job as a janitor in the Downtown Daylight Market where he was often paid in food. Then he started hawking fruit in a stand in front of the store where he was so successful he began earning cash: first three dollars then five dollars. His success came to the attention of the store’s owner, David Persha in Duluth, and he was transferred to the chain’s flagship store where he began to realize his talent in sales. He also knew he needed to build his own business.

After high school and a year of college, Jeno began traveling throughout Minnesota selling for a food distributor. It wasn’t long before he branched out on his own packaging and selling garlic throughout the state. It was on a garlic sales trip that he encountered a community of Japanese who were growing bean sprouts in Minneapolis. The story of how he turned bean sprouts into a $63-million Chinese food business is part of the story of the growth of Chinese food in Minnesota and throughout the country. And it is just one of more than seventy stories in Asian Flavors: Changing the Tastes of Minnesota since 1875.

Asian Flavors is a culmination of my twenty years as food editor of Asian Pages and the more than 500 articles I wrote for the paper. It is a history/cookbook created in collaboration with my culinary partner Raghavan Iyer who is also part of the story of Asian food in Minnesota.  The book is a tribute to the Asia Pacific Rim community and the wealth of traditions it has brought to Minnesota. We are very excited about Asian Flavors and hope you pick up a copy soon.

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

Favorite Restaurant Recipes in Asian Flavors / Now in bookstores

By Phyllis Louise Harris
October 2012

Sakura’s Futomaki, Sawatdee’s Holy Basil Supreme, Supatra’s Silver Bean Thread Noodle Salad, Quang’s Sea Bass Noodle Soup, Leeann Chin’s Chicken with Mango, and David Fong’s Chow Mein with Shrimp are just a few of the 160 recipes featured in the new four-color history/cookbook Asian Flavors: Changing the Tastes of Minnesota Since 1875. Published by the Minnesota Historical Press Asian Flavors is now available in bookstores and on
We went into the kitchens of several dozen area Asian restaurants and talked with the chefs, owners and people responsible for bringing the food of the Asia Pacific Rim to Minnesota. It all started in 1875 when the first Asian immigrants came to Minnesota from China and we feature a dish from the first Asian restaurant in Minnesota, the Canton Restaurant opened by the Woo brothers in 1883. It became John’s Place and operated on Sixth Street next door to Murray’s until 1967. Woo Du Sing’s granddaughter and great grandson recreated the recipe for the original John’s Place Special Chow Mein, a delicious combination of chicken and vegetables without using a single drop of soy sauce.
We also went into the kitchens of Asia Pacific Rim home cooks who share their traditional cooking with friends and neighbors to bring you the food of the Philippines including Chicken Adobo, Putos, Vegetarian Egg Rolls, Empanadas and Ube Cake.
We included a variety of recipes used in teaching programs by the Asian Culinary Arts Institutes such as Wok Smoked Duck, Steamed Buns, Pearl Balls, Hunan Pepper Sauce, Noodles with Sesame Sauce, Cantonese Shrimp, Green Beans in Mustard Sauce, Lamb Curry, Spinach Masala, Rice Noodles with Toasted Coconut, Poori, and dozens more.
We illustrated Asian Flavors with more than sixty four-color food photographs and on-site photos by the talented Tom Nelson of Jedlicka Design Ltd. designed the book to be attractive, readable and a treasure for years to come.  We added a timeline of the introduction of Asian food to Minnesota including familiar names such as Jeno Paulucci, Reiko Weston, Betty Crocker, and the Huie family of Duluth.
Asian Flavors is a culmination of my twenty years as food editor of Asian Pages and the more than 500 articles I wrote for the paper. It is in collaboration with my culinary partner Raghavan Iyer who is also part of the story of Asian food in Minnesota.  The book is a tribute to the Asia Pacific Rim community and the wealth of traditions it has brought to Minnesota. We are very excited about Asian Flavors and hope you pick up a copy soon.


Asian Flavors: Changing the Tastes of Minnesota Since 1875 / Coming to bookstores in October

By Phyllis Louise Harris
September 2012

Imagine living in a state with no chow mein, no egg rolls, no sushi, no pad Thai, no curries or any other food from the Asia Pacific Rim.  That was the State of Minnesota until 1875.
The land of sky blue waters was home to the Sioux and Ojibwa in the 1700s when settlers began to move in from France, England, Northern Europe and Scandinavia. The first immigrants from the Asia Pacific Rim began to arrive in the mid-1870s and were from China.  They brought with them a whole new cuisine based on food many Minnesotan’s had never tasted and it was immediately labeled “foreign food” by the more than 150,000 already living here. Even today, some people still refer to Asian food as “foreign.”
When the first Chinese restaurant opened in 1883 the tastes of Minnesota began to change. Twenty-one year old Woo Yee Sing and his younger brother Woo Du Sing opened their Canton Restaurant on Marquette Avenue in Minneapolis. Featuring the food of their homeland, the restaurant became very popular and in 1903 the brothers moved the restaurant to 6th Street off Nicollet Avenue across from the Dyckman Hotel and changed the name to John’s Place.  It successfully operated there until 1967 when it lost its lease.
By the time Walter James opened his Canton Grill in the basement of the Dyckman Hotel in 1918 there were more than1.2 million people in the state with fewer than 100 Chinese.  A year later he moved the restaurant to Seventh Street next to the Radisson Hotel and called it the Nankin Café.
The food of the Philippine Islands, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Korea, India and other Asia Pacific Rim countries soon followed and by 2009 there were 1100 Asian restaurants in the state.  Reiko Weston, Supenn Harrison, David Fong, Thom Pham, Wing Ying Huie, and Leeann Chin are among the familiar names of people who helped make Asian food popular in Minnesota.  But there are hundreds more including farmers, home cooks, food producers and cooking teachers who help expand the popularity of Asia Pacific Rim cooking throughout their communities and the state.
After 20 years as food editor of Asian Pages I had accumulated a file of more than 500 articles I had written about Asian food in Minnesota, the nation and the world.  It is from this treasure of information I selected stories and recipes for the book Asian Flavors and went in search of a few more.  Mumbai native Raghavan Iyer joined me as the book’s collaborator, Wendy Jedlicka was the book’s designer and Tom Nelson took dozens of food and on-site photos to make this a most colorful, interesting book.  It is filled with personal stories, historical facts, 160 recipes and a wealth of information about the food of the Asia Pacific Rim. Published by the Minnesota Historical Society Press Asian Flavors will be in bookstores in October.  We are looking forward to sharing it with all of you!  For ordering information go to

TeaSource Wins National Awards
Bill Waddington’s TeaSource received two awards from the recent North American Tea Championships held in Las Vegas.  TeaSource was awarded first place in the 2012 Spring Blended White Tea Category for its Jasmine Silver Needle and won third place in the 2011 Spring Hot Tea Class for its 1999 Green Puerh Cake.
The North American Tea Championship (NATC) is produced by World Tea Media, a division of F+W Media, Inc. NATC is an independent event, judged by professional cuppers, that evaluates premium teas from around the world that are sold in North America.  More than 200 teas were entered in the competition.
Opened in 1996 TeaSource carries more than 225 teas in its Highland, St. Anthony and Eden Prairie stores and through the TeaSource catalog.  For more information visit

Saturday, July 14, 2012

Asian Flavors Enhance Home Grown Corn

By Phyllis Louise Harris
July/August 2012

Minnesota corn is now coming to local markets and it is absolutely delicious. It is a New World vegetable that made its way around the world with the sixteenth century Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch and English spice traders. Here was a delicious vegetable found in the land that Columbus ran into on his voyage to India and that was initially settled by pioneers from Holland, England, Spain and Portugal. Corn became popular wherever it landed and today many countries around the world consider corn an important crop.
But this is where it all started. Native Americans showed the Pilgrims how to grow corn that helped them survive those difficult early years in this new land. It may have even saved them from starvation. Corn can be boiled, roasted, grilled, dried, popped, ground and preserved for use in the winter. But, this time of year, either simply simmer fresh corn in a milk/water bath for a sweet, corn flavor, grill it for a smoky flavor or stir-fry it for a tasty dish.

Boiled Corn
The secret here is milk and sugar, and just-picked corn on the cob. Vendors at farmers markets often pick their corn early in the morning and bring it straight to the market. If you can’t go into the fields to pick your own (and you can on some farms) ask the vendor when the corn was picked. Take it home and immediately refrigerate it, husk and all. Later in the day half-fill a large pot half-filled with water and bring it to a boil. Just before adding the corn, add 1/2-cup milk and 1/2 teaspoon sugar….no salt. Add the corn-on-the-cob that has been cleaned of its husks and silk, bring it back to a low boil, cover and simmer for 8 minutes. Turn off the heat and let it rest for a few minutes or up to an hour. Remove the corn and serve warm with butter, salt and pepper. Leftover corn can be wrapped and frozen on the cobs, then reheated in the microwave or remove the kernels, add a little of the milk broth and freeze in containers. The corn will retain its flavor for several months.

India’s Grilled Corn Street Vendors
When we think of the food of India we tend to think in terms of curries, tandoor chicken and bread. But that is only part of India’s amazing array of dishes especially when it comes to vegetables. One of the most popular street foods in India is grilled corn. Here the silk and husk are removed and the corn-on-the-cob is grilled over hot coals until it has areas of browned kernels among the bursting yellow kernels. It is then rubbed with a fresh lime wedge and rolled in sea salt for an absolutely delicious snack-on-the-run! Healthful, too. But, that is just the beginning. The corn can also be rubbed with the lime wedge, then rolled in a variety of flavorings such as coarsely chopped mint leaves, ground coriander, freshly ground white pepper, or minced cilantro. Pick you favorite combination.

Leftover Corn Chinese Style
The Chinese have been particularly adept at finding ways of using corn and combine it with salted peanuts and chilies for an interesting stir-fry. Start with a cup of Spanish peanuts without the skins, gently stir-fry in 2 tablespoons oil for about 3 minutes, remove and set aside. To the oil still in the pan add one small chili, seeded and chopped, stir-fry for about 1 minute and add 2 cups cooked corn kernels. Season to taste, stir-fry for a minute to heat the corn and add the peanuts. Stir-fry for another minute and serve. It is hot and crunchy with plenty of corn flavor. And it is a very colorful dish. Not your ordinary Minnesota corn.

The freshest corn is in farmers’ markets, but do ask when it was picked. You can also pick your own corn at farms around the state or stop by their roadside stands where the pick-of-the-day is often available at low cost. For a free guide to every one of them go online at or call 651-201-6050 for the free 2012 Minnesota Grown directory. It is published by the Minnesota Department of Agricultural and continues to grow each year with more and more resources from vineyards with wine tasting, to pick-your-own vegetables and fruit, to farm visits for the whole family. Don’t’ miss the best of Minnesota this summer. Enjoy homegrown everything!!

Wednesday, June 6, 2012

945 Minnesota Grown Adventures…Get the Free List Today!

By Phyllis Louise Harris
June 2012

Farmers’ markets are open all across the state and soon will be filled with tender June peas, young green beans, red ripe strawberries and a variety of greens and vegetables. But the markets are just a few of the 945 places in Minnesota to buy locally produced items. A free guide to every one of them is available online at or by calling 651-201-6050. The annual directory published by the Minnesota Department of Agricultural continues to grow each year with more and more resources from vineyards with wine tasting to pick-your-own vegetables and fruit to farm visits for the whole family.

Start with the more than 150 farmers’ markets across the state where every visit is like a trip to the fair with an endless array of food to buy and taste. One of my favorites, Mill City farmers’ market on the banks of the Mississippi River and next to the Guthrie Theater, is open Saturdays 8 am to 12 pm until October 27. This busy market has an exceptional variety of products from local natural and organic farms and producers. Many are owned and operated by farm families from the Asia Pacific Rim. With weekly chef demonstrations in the Mill City Museum train shed kitchen it is easy to learn about a variety of cuisines. And with the number of restaurant booths snacking becomes an international treat. Check the market’s website for weekly schedules and get there early. It does get crowded!

Another favorite market is the Northeast Minneapolis farmers’ market on University and Seventh avenues open Saturdays 9 am to 1 pm. It is especially easy for handicapped access. Open just a few years this market has grown considerably offering locally grown produce and freshly baked goods from local bakers. Among my favorites are the blueberry muffins from the Turtle Bread Company. Flowers, jewelry, preserves and art are a few more choices along with a number of food stands and this year a food truck.

The whole family will have lots to do at the Mustard Seed farmers’ market in Chaska featuring locally produced maple syrup, honey, soaps, crafts, farm produce in season plus bread, meat, poultry and spices. There is a playground for the children as well as a petting zoo with chickens, goats and miniature donkeys. Open Fridays 3 pm – 6 pm.

Head to scenic Cannon Falls and visit the Cannon River Winery and their interesting tasting room.  Then plan to stop at the Ferndale Market for a variety of locally produced items. It is open seven days a week and features free-range turkey along with a wide variety of other products. The market also holds special events throughout the summer.

The Hutchinson farmers’ market is in a new building modeled after historic farmers’ markets and open Wednesday 3 – 6 pm and Saturday 8 am – 12 noon through October. Plan to go on August 11 and take part in the Minnesota Garlic Festival at the McLeod County Fairgrounds. 

If you are heading north the Cook Area farmers’ market is on the way to Lake Vermilion with a variety of locally grown produce plus quilts, rugs, furniture, slippers and hand knit items. Find more information on Facebook. The market is open Saturdays 8 am – 1 pm through September.

For a whole summer of outdoor adventures get the complete list of farmers’ markets, farm visits, and a wide variety of Minnesota Grown opportunities.

Wednesday, April 11, 2012

Award-Winning Restaurants Threatened by Light Rail Construction

by Phyllis Louise Harris
April 2012

Businesses along University Avenue in St. Paul have been feeling the impact of light rail construction for some time.  Some were able to survive the interruption in customer traffic.  Others were not.

Tanpopo, well off the University construction, has been feeling the pinch for more than a year.  Customer traffic declined so much with Lowertown street closures around her restaurant that she eliminated lunch hours and only opened at night.  Sometimes they even closed at night if there were other emergencies.  The loss of business will never be made up, and owner Koshiki Yonemura Smith is doing everything possible just to survive until streets open again for traffic.  Fortunately, dinner crowds still come and the small restaurant is staying afloat.  It is a wonderful place to find the comforts of Japanese cooking such as noodle dishes, wonderful soup and other home cooking from Koshiki’s homeland.  She also varies her menu to use many fresh ingredients from the St. Paul farmers’ market.  And fish dishes are a specialty of hers as well.  Koshiki also maintains a website updated often to include current menu items.  Recent postings advised daily specials were panko kisu, spicy tuna rolls, sweet potato creme brulee (which is absolutely delicious). Visit  Or visit the restaurant at 308 Prince Street in Lowertown St. Paul just a block from the farmers’ market.  For takeout orders, reservations or more information call 651-209-6527.  Do it soon and often.  We want to be sure treasures such as Tanpopo are with us for years to come.  By the way, check out the website for Sushi classes offered at the restaurant.

A few weeks ago the University Avenue bulldozing began from Dale Street toward Marion and a whole new set of businesses suddenly lost customer traffic.  Among them are award-winning restaurants Cheng Heng and Mai Village.  Just down the block at Dale, SunFoods and its Hmong restaurant Destiny Café are also feeling the loss of business.  Just four more Asian food sources we do not want to lose.

Cheng Heng has been a source of outstanding Cambodian food since 1987, winning rave reviews from area press.  The small, friendly restaurant at 448 University Avenue West in St. Paul has built a following that has suddenly dropped off with the bulldozers out front.  While it is easy to cross the construction area and park in the restaurant’s parking lot, the entry sign is small and easily missed.  It is just west of Western Avenue on University and well worth the extra effort to turn into the opening in the fence.  This is a restaurant that actually specializes in mother’s home cooking for many of the dishes are from Kunrath Lam’s mother who still works in the kitchen.  Soups are hardy and flavorful.  A special Cambodian meal is centered around a hot pot with special sauces and noodles.  Fried shrimp with peppers served on a bed of lettuce takes on Cheng Heng’s special touch.  And the menu of more than 60 items offers a flavorful trip to Cambodia.  On weekends the restaurant makes Cambodian treats such as donuts made of sweet rice flour glazed with palm sugar and deep-fried buns filled with taro and coconut.  Call the restaurant for more information, for takeout orders and reservations, 651-222-5577.

Just a block away at 394 University at the corner of Western Avenue the award-winning Mai Village has been serving freshly cooked Vietnamese food for more than twenty years.  The road construction in front of the building has had some affect on traffic but the restaurant’s parking lot also opens on to Western for easier access.  With its gallery of Vietnamese art and antiques, Mai Village provides a beautiful refuge from the outside chaos on University Avenue.  Its menu is extensive including house specials such as Saigon Salad with beef tenderloin on watercress, Salmon in Chardonnay baked with tomatoes and served with Jasmine Rice, and Roasted Cornish Game Hen with deep fried coconut rice cakes.  Especially fun is the Assorted Meat and Seafood on Griddle cooked on a tabletop grill.  Owners Ngoan Dang and Mai Nguyen are making every effort to keep the business going during these trying times.  Visit soon or call 651-290-2585 for takeout orders or reservations.  Also visit their website at  Do it soon!

Monday, March 5, 2012

Finding Filipino Food in the Twin Cities

by Phyllis Louise Harris
March 2012

The food of the Philippine Islands is not always easy to find in the Twin Cities, but now there are three opportunities to sample this wonderful cuisine.

Mena-li Canlas, known as the “cake lady” in the Filipino community, is now offering a Pinoy Brunch and Merienda featuring some of her favorite dishes at Tita Li’s Kitchen in the Pines Market in Circle Pines, Minnesota.  Every Sunday from 10:00 am to 4:00 pm diners can eat in the convenience store or take out a variety of Filipino dishes including pansit, lonsilog, dinuguan, mechado, lumpia, ube cake, puto, empanada, and more.  The menu varies from week to week and is available on  The market is at 2 South Pine Drive, Circle Pines.  Or call 763-432-0768.

Phil. Oriental Foods is a great resource for the ingredients from the Philippine Islands as well items from India, Africa, Thailand and more.  They also made room in a corner of the market for Jun Maniago who offers a variety of freshly made Filipino dishes to take out every Friday, Saturday and Sunday.  Call or stop by for the day’s specials. Phil.-Oriental Imports, 789 University Avenue West, St. Paul.  Call 651-292-1325.

The twenty-fifth annual Philippines Day celebration will be held in St. Paul’s Landmark Center on Sunday, March 25 from 12 noon to 4 pm.  Each year hundreds of people attend this festive celebration filled with food, music, dancers, singers and items from the Philippines.  The event is free and filled with an afternoon of fun.  The program begins at 1:00 pm so you can sit and enjoy the show or still see it while you wander around the center buying a variety of treats and trinkets.  While the food differs from year to year there is sure to be adobo and halu-halo as well as a variety of freshly made sweets.  Sponsored by the Cultural Society of Filipino Americans (CSFA) this year the program will showcase the CSFA Dance Troupe and the many talents of the Filipino Community.  The Landmark Center is at 75 5th Street West in downtown St. Paul.

Tuesday, February 7, 2012

TeaSource’s New Eden Prairie Store and Colorful Catalog

by Phyllis Louise Harris
February 2012

Bill Waddington has opened his latest TeaSource at 561 Prairie Center Drive in Eden Prairie and filled it with some of his 250 teas and tea blends along with everything needed to make and enjoy tea.

While he took over the space of a former coffee house, Waddington does not serve coffee in any of his three stores.  Instead he has made a career of searching out quality tea from around the world and selling it through the stores, on his website ant through his new catalog.  And it all started as a hobby.

In the 1990s Waddington traveled around the country training storeowners for a major Minnesota grocery chain.  An avid tea drinker himself, he used the opportunity to visit Chinatowns in the larger cities and seek out tea merchants.  He also wrote to tea growers all over the world and was soon receiving samples of their teas.  By 1995 he was operating a mail order business out his home selling a small number of imported teas.  In 1997 he opened his first TeaSource store in the Highland area of St. Paul.  As the business grew he added teas, created his own blends, and opened a second store in St. Anthony.  The Eden Prairie store is his latest addition.

Each store offers tea enthusiasts a wide array of free booklets on brewing tea, selecting tea, understanding tea and serving tea.  Waddington also offers classes in Learning more About the World of Tea, Teabasics, Tea & Chocolate, Cooking with Tea, and The Mysterious World of Dark Tea…all taught by specialists in the use of tea.  And there is always something new to try.

As Waddington says in his new catalog, “There is a mysterious Chinese tea called Dark Tea that is almost unknown in the West, despite the fact that the Chinese venerate this tea.”  For years Dark Tea has been exported to countries west of China but not to those to the east.  Waddington “discovered” it on a tea-buying trip to the capital of Hunan Province and felt it needed to be added to his collection.

Visitors to any TeaSource can browse through the many teapots and cups available in the stores, try five different teas on “sample days” for just $3,35 or just sit and sip their favorite tea.  Waddington’s website is filled with tea information, tea events and products to purchase online.  His new catalog, also filled with tea information and products, is available online or by phone 1-877-768-7233.  The website and all stores have information on upcoming tea classes.  You can also communicate with Waddington through his face book @ TEASOURCE.  TeaSource was recently chosen as the tea vendor for Delta Airlines’ new terminal at the Minneapolis/St. Paul International airport.

For anyone still stuck in the teabag routine, I strongly recommend taking one of the TeaSource classes.  They are real eye-openers to the amazing world of tea.  Next to water, tea is the largest consumed beverage n the world and offers more than 1000 different teas and a multitude of blends.  The next class is Tea Basics at the new Eden Prairie store February 23, 7-9 p.m. and costs $15 per person.  Registration is limited so call early, 952-767-3648.

TeaSource stores are open everyday.  In the St. Anthony Sopping Center, TeaSource is at 2908 Pentagon Drive NE.  Call 612-788-7842 for hours.  In the Highland area of St. Paul, TeaSource is at 752 South Cleveland Avenue.  Call 651-690-9822.  The Eden Prairie TeaSource phone is 952-767-3648.

Monday, January 2, 2012

Home Cooking…Everyone’s Favorite Around the World!

By Phyllis Louise Harris
January 2012

When two chefs from Xi’an, China, came to Minnesota to teach at Hennepin Tech in 1995 they stayed with me for four weeks.  For the first few mornings, they suffered through my well-intended eggs and toast breakfast and then asked if they could fix their own.  So every evening before they went to bed, they went into the kitchen and made a batch of noodle dough.  They carefully covered the fresh dough with a cloth and the next morning cooked fresh noodles for their breakfast.  It was their way of bringing their own home cooking with them to this foreign land.  And, it gave them comfort each morning to eat cooking from home when during the day they were not sure if the Minnesota food they would be eating would be something they even liked.  Often it was not!

I thought of them on Christmas Day when my daughter and I were making one of our family’s favorite dishes, stewed chicken and homemade noodles.  It is a recipe that was handed down from my grandmother in Iowa to my dad, to me and my sister and brother.  After much trial and error we learned to make the delicate egg noodles that taste best made with homemade chicken broth, but even taste good with canned broth.  Here is the recipe….

Grandma Igo’s Homemade Noodles from Indianola, Iowa
Serves 8 (can be made in smaller or larger batches)

4 large or extra large eggs
2 – 4 cups white flour*
12 cups chicken broth
Salt to taste

1.  Break eggs into medium sized bowl and beat with a fork until well mixed, but not frothy.

2.  Begin adding flour 1/2 cup at a time mixing well with the egg.  Keeping adding flour 1/2 cup at a time and stirring until the eggs no longer absorb any flour.  As the mixture thickens, add less and less flour.  The mixture will form a ball and move around the bowl with the fork leaving a small amount of flour on the bowl.  Stop mixing!

3.  Cover a cutting board with 1 - 2 cups of flour.  Smooth out the flour to at least 1/2 inch thick and put 1/4 of the mixture on the board.  Cover the dough with some of the flour from the board and begin rolling out the dough with a rolling pin.  As needed add more flour on top of the dough and under the dough to keep it from sticking and continue rolling out to about 1/8 inch thick.  The dough may be any shape or size at this point.

4.  Gently pile more flour on top of the noodle sheet and starting with the edge nearest you, carefully roll the dough like a jelly roll.  With a clean, sharp knife, cut the roll into pieces 1/3 inch wide.  Carefully pick up noodles one at a time, uncurl, and shake off excess flour.  Place noodles on a wire rack spacing them out so they are not on top of each other.  They are still very wet and will stick together.  Continue until all the dough has been cut.

5.  In a large pot bring chicken broth to a boil and add salt to taste.  Add the noodles all at once or as quickly as possible and immediately gently stir into the broth.  Bring to a boil and add 1 cup cold water.**  Bring to a boil again and add another cup of cold water.  Bring mixture to a boil and turn heat down to simmer.  If necessary, add more broth or water one cup at a time as the mixture thickens and bring it to a simmer again after each addition.  Simmer noodles about 20 - 30 minutes gently stirring occasionally and cook noodles until they have lost the taste of raw flour and have absorbed the chicken broth flavor.  They will be tender and crinkly looking in all different sizes and shapes with a wonderful chicken flavor.  Serve hot with chicken and mashed potatoes.  It can’t be any more down home Iowa farm comfort food than this. . . and, not that much different from the Chinese chefs’ home cooking.

Noodles may be cooled and reheated on the stove.  They may also be frozen and reheated in the microwave, but will lose some of their texture.

*Though not as delicate in texture, gluten free flour also makes a very tasty noodle.
**For even "chickenier" flavor, experiment sometime by adding refrigerated broth rather than water.

Rich Chicken Broth
(Recipe may be doubled)

1/2 stewing hen, cut in half
8 fryer wings, whole or cut up
Salt to taste

1.  Rinse chicken pieces and wipe with a paper towel.  Set pieces into a large pot and add enough water to cover large chicken sections plus 1” more water.

2.  Heat pot over high heat until water starts to boil.  Skim off and discard the scum that has floated to the top of the water.  Turn heat down to low simmer, cover and cook until chicken is tender, 45 – 60 minutes.  Check wings, breast and thigh and remove each when tender….it may be at different times.  Remove the chicken when done and take cooked chicken off bones and place in shallow bowl.  Add bones and skin back into the pot.  Cover the cooked chicken with a little broth to keep moist.  Cover container and refrigerate.  Continue cooking chicken parts in covered pot for another hour or until it forms a rich broth.  Turn off heat and let broth cool down for at least 30 minutes.  Remove all chicken pieces and bones with a fine metal mesh skimmer to remove as many pieces as possible to eave a clear broth.  Discard bones, skin and any chicken meat pieces from the broth.

3.  Add about 2 cups of water to stock and bring broth to a boil.  Season broth with salt to taste.  It is now ready to cook homemade egg noodles.  If necessary, add canned broth to help enrich the chicken flavor.  The broth may be frozen for later use.

This should be enough broth to cook a 4-egg recipe of noodles that will produce 8 - 10 cups of cooked noodles and broth.